Endoscopy is a technique for performing procedures through natural openings in the body using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy is useful for removing foreign bodies, examining the lining of inner organs, obtaining biopsies. Common uses of endoscopy include esophagoscopy (esophagus), bronchoscopy (airways and lungs), gastroscopy (stomach), colonoscopy (colon), and cystoscopy (bladder).
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform a surgery. Some laparoscopic procedures include liver biopsy, spays (ovariectomy), cryptorchid castration, prophylactic gastropexy, abdominal exploration, lymph node biopsy, cystotomy, and pericardectomy.
Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity. Thoracoscopy may be performed either under general anesthesia or under sedation with local anesthetic.
In an arthroscopic examination, the surgeon makes a small incision in the patient’s skin and then inserts the arthroscope. Light is transmitted through fiber optics to the end of the arthroscope that is inserted into the joint. By attaching the arthroscope to a miniature video camera, the surgeon is able to see the interior of the joint through this very small incision rather than a large incision needed for surgery. The image is magnified up to 20x.
Disease and injuries can damage joints. Some of the most frequent conditions found during arthroscopic examinations of the joints in dogs are:
- Loose bodies of bone and cartilage: OCD (Osteochondrosis / Osteochondtritis Dissecans) of the knee, shoulder, elbow, ankle (hock)
- Inflammation: Acute and Chronic Synovitis – inflamed lining (synovium) in knee (stifle), shoulder, elbow, or hip
- Bursitis: Inflammation of a sac-like structure that surrounds ligament
- Shoulder: OCD, inflammation or tears of the bicipital tendon, rotator cuff injuries
- Knee: Cranial cruciate ligament tears with instability, meniscal (fibrocartilage) tears, chondromalacia (softening, wearing or injury of cartilage)
- Elbow: OCD, UAP and FCP associated with elbow dysplasia
- Hip: Tearing of the ligaments or joint capsule, cartilage damage
Urethral / Ureteral Stenting
Ureteric stent, sometimes also called ureteral stent, is a thin tube inserted into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of the urine flow from the kidney. The length of the stents used varies depending on a size (breed) of the patient. Additionally, stents come in differing diameters or gauges, to fit different size ureters. The stent is usually inserted with the aid of a cystoscope.
Urethral stents are placed most often when there is a cancer in the urethra or in the bladder.